Pythagoras was an ancient Greek philosopher who contributed greatly to modern mathematics, music, and theology; indeed, he is credited with coining the term "philosopher" itself. He was also an Awakened mage and an early forerunner of the Order of Hermes.
Pythagoras was born on the island of Samos around 570 BCE. As a youth, he traveled to Egypt, where he was initiated into the declining Cult of Thoth. He brought back these mysteries to Greece and later to Italy, where he found a receptive audience among worshippers of Hermes. At Croton, Pythagoras established his own magical cult, and some Hermetics identify him with Hermes Trismegistus, the author of the Corpus Hermeticum.
After his death, Pythagoras' disciples split into two factions, the Acousmatics and the Mathematics. The Acousmatics were devoted to the saying and teachings of Pythagoras and the cosmological and religious aspects of his teachings, while the Mathematics were devoted to his work in geometry, mathematics, and harmonics. The two factions came to blows in the War of Hermes, which resulted in the extinction of the Acousmatics and the absorption of the Mathematics into Plato's Academy.
For the historical figure, see Pythagoras.